DESERTIFICATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE: THE CHALLENGE FOR ZAMFARA STATE
By Dr. LAWAL MOHAMMAD ANKA, Ph.D
A PAPER PRESENTED ON THE WORLD ENVIRONMENTAL DAY ORGANIZED BY ZAMFARA ENVIRONMENTAL FRONTLINE FORUM (ZEFF).
DESERTIFICATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE THE CHALLENGE FOR ZAMFARA STATE
What is desertification?
Desertification is expansion of dry land due to poor Agricultural practices such as overgrazing of soil fertility and climate change.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which dry land becomes arid losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
CAUSES OF DESERTIFICATION
it is caused by the following factors
- Climate change
- Human activities
- Overgrazing and deforestation
- Mass migration of people from rural to urban areas
- Socioeconomic policy factors
SOLUTION TO DESERTIFICATION
Un conservation to combat Desertification suggested the following
- Implement action programmes that will address the causes of desertification
- Include local communities in executing grass root development efforts
- Uses science and technology to research and fight desertification
- Establish grazing land
- Plant trees
DESERTIFICATION IN NIGERIA
- Nigeria is facing problems of desertification it is on the increase
- Nigeria experience draughts which makes it impossible for vegetation to survive this creates desert like conditions
- Climate change also causes desertification
- Human’s continue to expand their area cutting down trees which killing vegetation
- Kano, Katsina, Zamfara, Sokoto, Borno and Yobe states are affected by desertification
- Farmers in the affected states may be forced to leave the land that is affected by desertification and move to better grazing areas for their hard.
ADDRESSING THE PROBLEMS DESERTIFICATION IN NIGERIA
- Federal ministry of environment has developed a strategy to combat the challenges of desert environment
- An action programme in the form of tree planting campaign was carried out
- Thousand of seed lengs were raised and distributed at nominal prices
- Sensitization campaigns were carried out by the ministry to educate the general public about the dangers of desertification
CHALLENGES OF DESERTIFICATION FOR ZAMFARA STATE
- Population pressure
- Challenges to Agricultural practices
- Loss of arable land and pastures is threatening the economy of the affected areas
- Desertification increase the intensity of farmers Fulani clash
- Violent confrontations are increasing due to desertification
What is climate change?
- Climate changes is the variation in global or regional climate overtime
- Climate change is excess of natural variability attributable to human activity
- Climate change frustrate poverty eradication efforts making it difficult to achieve MDG goals
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ENVIRONMENT
- Uncertainly in water availability
- Decrease in crop yield
- Loss in biodiversity
- Increased health risks
- Increased in achence of high sea level
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ECONOMY
- Climate change will likely affect =s poverty and slow down economic growth
- Climate change challenge arability to achieve economic and social objectives that define sustainable development.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CROPS
- Shortening the length of growing season
- Loss in yield
- Reduction in Agricultural productivity could affect economic growth.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LIVES STOCK
- Physiological stress on animals due to high temperature
- Loss in productivity (Milk and meat) due to high temperature.
- Stress on conception and reproduction due to high temperature.
- Increased water requirement of Animals and crops.
IMPACT ON LAND DEGRADATION
- Water logging: Rising water table due to high rainfall.
- Salinity: High evaporation due to high temperature affects growth and germination of plants.
- Erosion: Detachment of soil layer is affected action of water and wing.
GLOBAL RESPONSES TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEMS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
1979: Un holed trust world climate conference
1988: Inter governmental change conference was held to sensitize people on climate change.
1992: Earth summit held in Riode Janiro Brazil Framework convention on climate change formed
1997: Kyoto Japan protocol established to achieve the objectives of UNFCCC
2009: the third word climate conference held GFCS (Global Framework) for climate services formed.
CHALLENGES OF CLIMATE CHANGE FOR ZAMFARA STATE
Zamfara state is likely to experience the following challenges due to climate change.
- Increasing temperature higher than global increases
- Changes in average rainfall
- Changes availability irrigation water
- Extreme events such as floods droughts, heat waves, clod waves, dynodes etc.
- Both desertification and climate change is a challenge to policy makers, researchers, scientist and planners.
- Both desertification and climate change have significant implications for present and feature generations. It will continue to be a subject of public debates.
- Zamfara is highly vulnerable to both desertification and climate change impacts due to its location weak technological and financial base.
- Zamfara state economy is a graracan which is highly sensitive to changes in rainfall, temperature and monsoon.
Huge losses to infrastructure, crops and livestock posing threats to food security as a result of climate change and desertification.